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CRYSTAL FALLS, MICHIGAN 49920
2017 Tree Sale
Connell Red Apple: (‘McIntosh’ x ‘Longfield’) University of MN, 1943. A red blush mutation of ‘Fireside’ apple. Similar to ‘Fireside’ except that it has more intense red color. Hardy, heavy bearer. Large size. Excellent for eating or cooking. Distinctive flavor. Fruit keeps well until April or May. Unsuitable pollinator for ‘Fireside’.
Gravenstein Apple: Europe, 1800. Gravenstein apple is an old-fashioned apple variety with sweet, tart flavors and crisp, juicy texture. One of the earliest ripening apples, picked in late July and August. Is used primarily as a cooking apple, especially for sauces and cider. An irregularly-shaped green apple with broad red stripes. Short storage life.
Honeycrisp Apple: (‘Keepsake’ x unnamed seedling) University of MN, 1991. An exciting apple that is exceptionally crisp and juicy. Flavor is sweet but well-balanced. Excellent storage life, up to 7 months. Ripens in late September in MN and stores like a late season variety. Has become an outstanding commercial and home orchard variety because of its explosive crispness, flavor and storage life. CPBR #1007, C®
Liberty Apple: ‘Macoun’ x Perdue 54-12) New York, 1964. A productive variety that was selected for its resistance to apple scab and cedar-apple rust. Crisp and juicy with a sprightly flavor. Keeps well into February. Does well without spraying.
Prairie Magic® Apple: (‘Goodland’ x ‘Mantet’) From Manitoba, this apple stands out because of its superior cold hardiness. The flesh is white, crisp and sweeter than ‘Goodland’. Delicious eaten out of hand and may also be used for cooking. Introduced by Jeffries Nurseries Ltd.
McIntosh Apple: (‘Fameuse’ x ‘Detroit Red’) Ontario, Canada, 1870. A well-known older apple that has a sprightly flavor and a medium storage life. Nearly solid, bright red skin. Heavy bearer. Good for eating and baking. Fruit tends to drop when ripe.
Norland Apple: (‘Rescue’ x ‘Melba’) Saskatchewan, Canada, 1979. One of the earliest summer apples to ripen. Well suited to very cold regions. A natural semi-dwarf tree that is precocious and productive. Attractive color, small to medium fruit. Good cooking or eating apple. Very hardy. Keeps about 16 weeks in cold storage. Fruit must be picked before full maturity for storage or use.
Red Duchess Apple: A red selection of ‘Duchess of Oldenburg’. Very hardy, medium to large size red apple. Fruit is tart and juicy. Good for eating, but best for pies and sauces. Abundant fruit, annual bearer. Short storage life.
SnowSweet® Apple: (‘Sharon’ x ‘Connell Red’) University of Minnesota cold hardy apple varieties. A cross between ‘Sharon’ and ‘Connell Red’, SnowSweet® has a deliciously sweet, slightly tart taste. Slow to oxidize when exposed to air. ‘Honeycrisp’ is a good pollinator. Above average resistance to scab and fire blight.
Wolf River Apple: Wisconsin, 1875. An old variety, hardy and long lived. Best known for its large size - up to 5” diameter fruit. Color is pale yellow to green with carmine-red blushes and stripes. Primarily used as a cooking apple.
Yellow Transparent Apple: Russia, 1880. Skin is clear yellow and the flesh is white. Precocious and productive tree. Best used for cooking. Heavy producer. Pick before maturity for better storage life. Scab resistant.
Northern Spy Apple: University of MN, 1940. A red selection of ‘Prairie Spy’ that has better fruit adherence on the tree at maturity. Best for baking. Long-term storage apple. Very productive.
Centennial Crabapple: (‘Dolgo’ x ‘Wealthy’) University of MN, 1957. Blooms mid-May. Large crabapple (1.75 -2 inches). Red over orange. Excellent flavor for fresh eating. Short storage life. Hardy.
Chestnut Crabapple: University of MN, 1946. Originated in 1946 as an open-pollinated seedling of ‘Malinda’. Pleasant nut-like flavor. Large crabapple (2” diameter). Outstanding flavor and good texture for fresh eating. Medium storage life. Hardy.
Whitney Crabapple: Illinois, 1869. Fruit is yellow with red stripes. Good for eating and pickling. Hardy, vigorous, heavy bearing tree. Short storage life.
Dolgo Crab: This ornamental crab blooms early in the season with pink buds that open to fragrant white blooms. The large brilliant crimson fruits ripen in late summer for wonderful jelly with fine flavor and color.
Pipestone Plum: Red - ‘Burbank’ x (P. salicina x ‘Wolf’). A very attractive red plum with a golden blush. Released by the University of Minnesota in 1942. Sweet, juicy, yellow flesh with excellent quality. Immense sized red fruit. Good for fresh use, jam and jelly. Very hardy.
Toka Plum: Red - South Dakota Experiment Station introduction, 1911. One of the best pollinators. A medium sized, richly flavored variety with beautiful apricot color.
Meteor Cherry: Genetic dwarf introduced by the University of MN in 1952. Large, bright red fruit. Mildly acid in flavor. Fine for sauce or pie. Generally regarded as slightly hardier than ‘North Star’. Blooms in early May.
Evans Bali Cherry: Deep, dark red fruit 1” in diameter and excellent for baking and fresh eating. The fruit is much sweeter than other sour cherries. Extremely hardy buds.
Parker Pear: 1934 University of Minnesota introduction. Open-pollinated seedling of a Manchurian pear. Large, yellow-bronze fruit. Fine grained, tender and juicy. Upright and vigorous grower.
Patten Pear: Fruit is of good size and quality. Very tender and juicy. A good pollinator for most other pear trees.
Meyer Dwarf Lemon: Meyer Improved, easily move it inside for the winter. Your tree will continue to bear fruit and brighten your home. Its vivid yellow/orange fruit against its glossy evergreen foliage will make this your all-time favorite houseplant. These are prolific fruiters, even when young. Lemons ripen over several months, not all at once, so you have more time to enjoy. Naturally sweeter than standard lemons. MUST BE KEPT INDOORS DURING FROSTS, SNOW OR FREEZING TEMPERATURES. DO NOT PLANT IN YOUR YARD!
Bears Dwarf Lime: Also known as the Tahiti lime or Bears lime, the Persian Lime is the most popular lime around-and for good reason. Persian limes combine the savory blend of a key lime and a lemon, but without the seeds, bitterness or acidity. Its full size practically weighs down the branches, giving you an indoor lime that's simply unbeatable. A spicy fragrance unique among citrus, it's tamer than the key lime, but also more flavorful. MUST BE KEPT INDOORS DURING FROSTS, SNOW OR FREEZING TEMPERATURES. DO NOT PLANT IN YOUR YARD!
Jersey Giant Asparagus: Large stalk, very productive, green, zones 4-8.
Jersey Knight Asparagus: Early, very productive, very large attractive spears, green, zones 4-8.
Mary Washington Asparagus: Best all-around variety for garden and commercial use, zones 4-8.
Purple Passion: Large, tender deep purple spears, sweet nutty flavor, zones 4-8.
Viking KB3: Very hardy, rust resistant, green stalks, high yield, zones 4-8.
Horseradish zones 3-8
Canada Red Rhubarb: Very popular rhubarb, tender, sweet, stalks that are red clear through. Plants are hardy and grow in most well-drained soil types, zones 3-8.
Blue Crop Blueberry: Berries ripen early, Large, firm, sweet berry is great for U-pick or mechanical harvest, zones 4-7.
Blueray Blueberry: Early mid-season, Very large, light blue berries with an excellent flavor. Bush grows upright and is very vigorous and productive, zones 4-7.
Northland Blueberry: Early season, medium size, firm fruit, plant has a low spreading habitat, zones 3-7.
Patriot Blueberry: Early season, large, very firm fruit, grows upright, good bush ornamental, zones 3-7.
RASPBERRIES & BLACKBERRIES
Latham Raspberries: June bearing, very sweet, pure red color fruit, firm, zones 3-8
Bristol Raspberries: Midseason, very large, glossy, black fruit, plants are vigorous, and productive, zones 3-8.
Brandywine Raspberries: Very large, purple, tart fruit, great for jams’, jellies, pies, excellent flavor, zones 4-8.
Autumn Bliss Raspberries: Ever bearing, earliest ever bearing to ripen, large sweet berries, zones 3-8.
Arapaho Blackberry: Early bearing, good quality, productive, zones 4-8.
Sparkle Strawberry: Midseason, medium size, excellent flavor, zones 3-8.
King of the North Grape: Very vigorous and productive, ripens early, seeded purple to blue fruit, zones 3-7.
Landscaping Shrubs, Trees, and Plants for Wildlife
Pagoda Dogwood: This graceful small tree has pale yellow flowers in May, followed by blue-black fruit, and the leaves turn a beautiful maroon red in the fall. Branches grow in irregular tiers, forming a somewhat horizontal, layered look to the plant. Nebraska Statewide Arboretums’ Great Plants® 2000 Winner. Pot or plant under conditions of high humidity until growth is established. Wonderful for yards, and landscaping.
Red Osier Dogwood: Selected for its bright red winter twig color by many landscapers. Wonderful for wildlife!
Northern Gold Forsythia: A COPF introduction in 1979, originated by D.R. Sampson, Ottawa, Canada, this upright shrub has gray-yellow branches and golden yellow flowers. With outstanding flower color and bud hardiness, it produces flowers to the top of branches in Canada. Wonderful for pollinators!
Renaissance Bridalwreath Spirea: Selected at Bailey Nurseries for its more disease resistant foliage, this outstanding spirea is similar in all other respects to Vanhoutte, including beautiful white blooms. Blue green foliage, and orange red fall foliage. Wonderful for pollinators!
Purple Smoketree: Dramatic, long lasting, pinkish purple, smoke-like airy seed clusters backed by reddish-purple foliage create a prized small tree or large accent shrub. Foliage holds color all summer, then turns scarlet in autumn. Deciduous.
Regent Saskatoon Serviceberry: A nicely shaped shrub form of juneberry. Large white flowers. The dark purple to black fruit is sweet and good for eating and making jelly. Xeriscape plant. 2007 Great Plants® for the Great Plains winner. Wonderful for wildlife and pollinators!
Fragrant Sumac: Small yellow flowers in May, followed by small red berries. Useful to control erosion on banks or hillsides. Sun or partial shade. Pubescent stems. Wonderful for birds and Wildlife!
Witch Hazel: Flowers have fragrant, yellow, ribbon-like petals, 1.5” in diameter and bloom in late fall about the time leaves drop. Does well in woods, shade and naturalized situations. In full sun and good soil will develop into a well-rounded vase-shaped plant. Use in the shrub border or as screen plant. Wonderful for wildlife!
Amethyst Lilac: Abundant clusters of sweetly fragrant, purple flowers in mid-spring. Vigorous, upright, multi-stemmed shrub with heart-shaped foliage. Ideal as a flowering hedge or screen. Wonderful for pollinators!
Snowy Lilac: Clusters of distinct yellow buds open to large, fragrant, double white flowers in spring. Plant near a walkway or patio to enjoy the fragrance. Excellent cut flowers. Wondaful for pollinators!
Glossy Black Chokeberry: A splendid ornamental shrub. White flowers in May followed by 1/4” black fruits that hang on well into winter. Abronia berries can be eaten fresh, used for baking, jams, juice and wine.
American Hazelnut: Rounded edible nuts 1/2-inch-wide and 2 to 4 in a cluster. Useful for the shrub border and in naturalistic settings. Sun or partial shade. Wonderful for Wildlife!
Highbush Cranberry: Bushes grow to 15 feet tall and become rather formal and rounded in shape. They make a great hedge or privacy screen. The flowers are very small, white, and borne in large terminal cymes that are 3 to 4 inches across, similar to other ornamental Viburnums. The fruits are 3/8 inches in diameter, showy red and very persistent, remaining on the bushes well after frost and brightening the winter landscape. Use fruits in jelly, preserves or sauces. Birds love it!
Red Elderberry: Red elderberry is a tall shrub that grows best in forest openings; its seeds can remain dormant for many years until a gap opens and stimulates germination, sometimes on "nurse logs." It can also stump-sprout from the root crown following cutting or fire. Birds and mammals (such as bears, raccoons, and mice) favor the juicy fruits and disperse them widely. Porcupines and snowshoe hares nibble the bark in winter. The leaves are bitter and contain a cyanogenic glycoside chemical, which is toxic to humans but does not deter deer and other ungulates. Red elderberry is planted on streamside’s to control erosion.
Red Mulberry: Native to the U.S. At maturity, the typical Red Mulberry (Rubra) will reach up to 70 feet high, with a maximum height at 20 years of 45 feet. Red mulberry has a short trunk and stout, spreading branches that form a round-topped crown. The fruits are juicy and have a dark purple color. Red mulberry was used by several Native American tribes to treat a variety of ailments. The sap was used to treat ringworm The Cherokee made a tea from the leaves of the plant for treatment of dysentery, weakness, and difficulty urinating The Comanche used the fruit of the red mulberry as a food source. Excellent for wildlife!
American Plum: Wild plum fruit was and still is extensively consumed by Native Americans either fresh or made into a sauce; they also ate the wild plums or chickasaw plums fresh or dried. Plums were also pitted and dried. Early explorers often mentioned wild plums in their journals and diaries and also appreciated them as food. Wild plums are eaten fresh, canned, preserved in jams and jellies, baked, and made into fruit roll-ups. Wild plums are eaten by turkey, black bear, wolves, and foxes. Plum thickets often furnish valuable protective shelter. They also make good wildlife habitat for birds and are effective in erosion control because their roots hold the soil. Their thorny branches catch tumbleweeds, leaves, and other plant materials, which, when windstorms occur during times of drought, provide an effective means of slowing wind erosion.
Saskatoon Serviceberry: Green foliage and inconspicuous white flowers, with conspicuous purple fruits or seeds. The greatest bloom is usually observed in the late spring, with fruit and seed production starting in the summer and continuing until summer. The berries were eaten raw or cooked or dried and stored. Dried berries were often mixed with dried vegetables or meat or cooked in soups or puddings. Cakes of dried berries were a common trading item. The wood is hard and was used for combs, digging sticks, fire drills, arrows, tool handles, hoops, and spreaders. Serviceberry may be used effectively in naturalized plantings and as hedges, windbreaks, or screens in urban areas. Commercial fruit for production in North America are used to make jams, jellies, syrups, baked goods, candies, fruit leather, and wine. Commercial growers have developed a fresh and processed fruit cottage industry. Deer, moose, and other mammals browse serviceberry, and its fruit is relished by several species of song and game birds. These shrubs are often used as cover for small mammals and birds.
Downey Hawthorn: An attractive, small native tree with a rounded habit. Showy white 1″ flowers in clusters in late May. Blossoms are followed by showy, round, red (1/2 -1″) fruits in late Aug.-Sept. which fall soon after. Crataegus is Greek for ‘flowering thorn’, and this beauty is somewhat variable in thorniness. Some are almost thornless. When present, the thorns are 2″ long and slender. Bark is grayer than most hawthorns, and deeply fissured. Leaves are medium green and quite downy above and especially below, along the margins. Fall color is yellow to burgundy. Excellent for birds!
Ninebark: Ornamental traits in combination with the species' cold hardiness and its adaptability across a variety of soil textures, moisture levels, and pH make it an appealing and versatile landscaping shrub for gardens and landscapes. Traditionally ninebarks were used in mass, border, or screen plantings. Spring flowers are also attractive nectar sources for butterflies and other pollinators. Common ninebark provides interest throughout the year. Spring color of the 3-lobed maple-like leaves will vary and may be yellow-orange, burgundy, crimson-red, gold, or green. Leaf color and intensity of color of some cultivars will change across the growing season. Planting ninebarks in full sun ensures best foliage color. 1-2" white or pink flat-topped flower clusters appear from spring through mid-summer and are followed by pink to red clusters of seed capsules that eventually turn brown in late fall. The multicolored, peeling bark provides winter interest in the landscape.
Winterberry Holly: Native to eastern Canada and the eastern half of the United States. Other names are "black alder," "false alder" and "fever bush." In nature, winterberry shrubs typically call wetland areas home, they can live in other areas. Homeowners who have areas of their landscapes plagued by wetness can take advantage of this shrub's native predisposition and plant it in such areas where little else would survive. Preferring acidic soil, can be grown in partial shade or full sun, areas with more sunlight will increase berry production. Winterberry holly's exciting display of red berries is enhanced as this holly shrub sheds its leaves. All the attention is drawn to the plant's fruit, with no foliage to obstruct the viewer's vision. Wild bird watchers will want to take note as well of plants in the wintertime yard that attract songbirds.
Silver Maple: The fastest growing species of American maple, this very hardy native combines graceful form, vigorous growth, and tolerance for a variety of extreme conditions. Foliage provides medium shade, and a nice ornamental effect from the silvery undersides of the leaves.
Sugar Maple: This wonderful shade tree is undoubtedly the largest and finest of our native maples. Slow to medium in growth rate and very hardy, it prefers rich, well-drained soil. Fall color is simply spectacular, ranging from rich, brilliant yellows to all shades of oranges and red.
Red Maple: A fairly rapid growing tree, red maple is a beautiful addition to the landscape. The showy red flowers appear in spring before the leaves open and put on a great show. Autumn brings outstanding shades of color. Red maple will perform best in partial shade and moist soils.
Paper Birch/White Birch: This very hardy birch is very desirable of all the white-barked birches. Stems are a beautiful red-brown when immature, a perfect chalk-white when older. Fall color is an outstanding landscape feature. AKA “canoe birch”, is among the most utilized of all ornamental trees. Rounded shape when mature with a bark that makes it stand out in any season, especially in autumn when its leaves turn brilliant yellow. Native Americans made extensive use of this tree.
Yellow Birch: The wood of yellow birch is heavy, strong, close-grained, even-textured, and shows a wide color variation, from reddish brown to creamy white. It is used for furniture, cabinetry, charcoal, pulp, interior finish, veneer, tool handles, boxes, woodenware, and interior doors. The wood can be stained and takes a high polish. Yellow birch is one of the principal hardwoods used in the distillation of wood alcohol, acetate of lime, charcoal, tar, and oils. Deer consume large numbers of yellow birch seedlings in summer and prefer green leaves and woody stems in fall. Moose, white-tailed deer, and snowshoe hare also browse yellow birch. The seeds are eaten by various songbird species, and ruffed grouse feed on seeds, catkins, and buds. Red squirrel cut and store mature catkins and eat the seeds. Beaver and porcupine chew the bark. The sap of yellow birch can be tapped for use as edible syrup. Tea is sometimes made from the twigs and/or inner bark. It is a good lawn tree, providing relatively light shade, and it has showy bark and fall foliage colors. It also is a good edge tree for naturalized areas. Yellow birch grows best in full sun.
American Larch: Also, known as tamarack, this open, pyramidal tree has horizontal to drooping branches. The needles are pale green, turning yellow in the autumn before falling. Intolerant of shade and pollution. Grows best in moist, well-drained, acidic soils. Excellent planted in groves in moist soil.
White Oak: An outstanding example of our national tree, the White Oak is strong, disease resistant, and drought tolerant. The foliage is deep green above and white underneath. 2000 Gold Medal Plant® Award winner.
Swamp White Oak: Excellent in both wet and upland soils, this tree has a coarser, less deeply incised leaf than Q. alba, and acorns borne on 2- 4” stalks. It shows good transplant success. Named a 1999 Great Plants® for the Great Plains Award winner.
Bur Oak: Native from Nova Scotia to Manitoba and south to Pennsylvania and Texas, this beautiful oak has attractive corky bark especially interesting in winter. A great xeriscape plant, it tolerates a wide range of soil types and air pollutants. Voted 2001 Urban Tree of the Year by the Society of Municipal Arborists. Great Plants® for the Great Plains 2004.
Northern Red Oak: The fastest growing oak and one of the easiest to transplant, this tree is great for street use or as a landscape tree. The foliage is dense and lustrous and leaves hang on the tree into winter. Named the 1999 Iowa Tree of the Year.
Basswood: Basswood, also known as American Linden is a large native north American tree that can grow more than 80 feet tall. In addition to being a majestic tree in the landscape, basswood is a soft, light wood and prized for hand carvings and making baskets.
American Elm: Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests. Moreover, during the 19th and early 20th centuries many species and cultivars were also planted as ornamental street, garden, and park trees. Some individual elms reached great size and age. However, in recent decades, most mature elms of European or North American origin have died from Dutch elm disease, resistant cultivars have been developed, capable of restoring the elm to forestry and landscaping.
Black Walnut: Native to the US prized for unequalled hardwood. Entire forests in the north-east were cut down to build the cabinets in the homes in our founding cities. During the civil war, Black Walnut was the wood of choice for soldier’s gunstocks. With no major replanting plan in place until after the 1970’s, this tree became a hot commodity. Growing ram-rod straight and up to 100 feet tall, this amazingly stately tree will be standing for your great-great grandchildren to enjoy.
Quaking Aspen: Quaking aspens, also called trembling aspens, are named for their leaves. Flat leaves attach to branches with lengthy stalks called petioles, which quake or tremble in light breezes. They regularly grow in dense, pure stands, creating a stunning golden view as they change color in the fall. The white bark is one identifying characteristic of this tree, but the bark is special for more reasons than just its unique appearance. The bark layer carries out photosynthesis, a task usually reserved for tree leaves. In winter, when other deciduous trees are mostly dormant, quaking aspens are able to keep producing sugar for energy! Deer, moose, and elk seek shade from aspen groves in summer. These same animals consume bark, leaves, buds, and twigs of quaking aspen throughout the year. Ruffed grouse is especially dependent on quaking aspen for food and nesting habitat. People use quaking aspen for fuel and to make paper, particle board, furniture, and hamster bedding. A grove of quaking aspens in Utah is the largest known living thing on Earth. Nearly 50,000 stems protrude from a single root system. The entire organism covers over 100 acres and weighs 6,000 tons! Quaking aspen clones are virtually impossible to kill. Individual stems can be destroyed by humans, wildlife, and disease, but the belowground root system is resistant to almost all of these factors! A major inhibitor of aspen growth is fire suppression. Quaking aspens require intense sunlight to grow, but when other trees spring up in the forest, aspen stems are shaded out. Fire reduces canopy cover and allows for the continued growth of quaking aspens.
Balsam Fir: Most cold-hardy and aromatic of all firs. It seems to gladly suffer the Canadian cold but is also comfortable when planted in mid-latitude eastern North America. Normally grows to a height of 60 feet and can live at sea level to 6,000 feet. The tree is one of America's most popular Christmas trees.
Frasier Fir: Widely used as a Christmas tree. Its fragrance, shape, strong limbs, and ability to retain its soft needles for a long time when cut (which do not prick easily when hanging ornaments) make it one of the best trees for this purpose. The Fraser fir has been used more times as the White House Blue Room Christmas tree than any other type of tree.
Hemlock: Large pyramid-shaped evergreens. The branches are pendulous, and cones are smaller than spruce or pine and more abundant. Foliage does not change color in autumn but does have a light green to yellow color for new growth and a dark green for old growth. Used for a variety of things. An important part of the lumber industry, used for paneling, flooring and furniture, rayon yarns and tanning. Landscaping is another major use of hemlock trees. The USDA also states that hemlocks are used in prevention of stream bank erosion, tanning, basket-making, wool coloring, children's items and lining for pits were some of the uses Native Americans found for the wood. Other uses include poultices, liniments, windbreaks and structural support.
Norway Spruce: Norway spruce is a familiar sight in much of the United States, but it’s really a tree of Europe. Throughout the globe, this tree has many uses including lumber, pulpwood, Christmas trees and landscape specimen trees. Its dense branching pattern and tolerance of soil variations has also made it a popular tree for windbreaks.
White Spruce: This tree has often been heralded as a beautiful tree, whether lining the banks of a North Country river or gracing someone’s front yard. But the white spruce is more than just a pretty face. Commercially it, it is a mainstay of the pulp and paper industry and well-used for construction lumber. In landscape, it is a lovely specimen tree or grouping, a sturdy option for windbreaks and buffer strips, and serves as a great visual screen.
Colorado Blue Spruce: Popular ornamental conifers, the Colorado blue spruce (or simply, blue spruce) is a truly magnificent sight. Its silvery blue-green coloring and perfect Christmas tree shape make this tree a great landscaping focal point on commercial and residential properties. It is also widely used for privacy or a windbreak.
Black Spruce: Is also called bog spruce, swamp spruce, and shortleaf black spruce, is a wide-ranging, abundant conifer of the northern parts of North America. Its wood is yellow-white in color, relatively light in weight, and strong. Black spruce is the most important pulpwood species of Canada and is also commercially important in the Lake States. Black spruce usually grows on wet organic soils, but productive stands are found on a variety of soil types from deep humus through clays, loams, sands, coarse till, boulder pavements, and shallow soil mantles over bedrock. In the Lake States and adjacent Canadian provinces, it grows on soils of the order Histosols: peat bogs and swamps that have formed on old glacial lakebeds and in muck-filled seepages on peat deposits that range in thickness from 0.5 to 6 m (20 in to 20 ft.). The most productive black spruce stands are on dark brown to blackish peats, which usually have a considerable amount of decayed woody material. Stands of low productivity are usually found on thick deposits of partially decomposed sphagnum peat.
White Cedar: This medium-sized tree grows to a height of 25 to 50 feet, and a diameter of 1 to 2 feet. The small, oblong cones stand erect on flattened branchlets that are covered by overlapping, scale like leaves. The thin bark sheds in long, narrow strips. Sometimes referred to as the "Swamp Cedar" it typically is found growing on limestone soils in moist to boggy habitats. Its soft but brittle wood is used for fences, shingles and small articles. The tree also is used in ornamental plantings. White-tailed Deer use Arborvitae thickets in winter, and smaller mammals as well as birds feed on its seeds.
Jack Pine: 30–72 feet tall. Some jack pines are shrub-sized, due to poor growing conditions. They do not usually grow perfectly straight, resulting in an irregular shape. This pine often forms pure stands on sandy or rocky soil. It is fire-adapted to stand-replacing fires, with the cones remaining closed for many years, until a forest fire kills the mature trees and opens the cones, reseeding the burnt ground. Unusually for a pine, the cones normally point forward along the branch, sometimes curling around it. That is an easy way to tell it apart from the similar lodgepole pine in more western areas of North America. They open when exposed to intense heat, greater than or equal to 122 °F. The typical case is in a fire, however cones on the lower branches can open when temperatures reach 81 °F due to the heat being reflected off the ground. Additionally, when temperatures reach −46 °C (−51 °F), the cones will open, due to the nature of the resin.
Red Pine: The ideal soil does not have to be well-watered since the red pine does thrive in drought-like conditions. However, it should be loose and be able to promote drainage. Sand is an example of loose, well-draining soil. In the modern era, manufacturers have used red pine for structural and mining timbers, railroad ties and telephone poles.
White Pine: It was the white pine that brought loggers to this area in the late 1880s and provided the lumber that built the homes of our great-grandparents. Over the next 100 years, the number of white pines decreased by 75 percent. White pine grows well on a wide range of soil. Avoid the extremes of heavy, continually wet soils and gravelly, drought-prone soils when selecting planting areas.
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